This branch of the Austrian Hesch family is descended from Johann Hesch and his wife Marya (Schlinz) Hesch, who came to America from Oberschlagles, Bohemia with three sons: Paul, Mathias, and Anton. +++Johann & Marya settled in Buffalo County, Wisconsin but moved to Pierz, Mn in about 1885. .+++Mathias settled in Waumandee, Wisconsin and moved to Pierz in 1911. +++Anton never married but farmed with his dad in Agram Township, where he died in 1911.+++And Paul, my great grandfather, settled five miles away, in Buckman, Minnesota. He died there in 1900.

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Monday, October 24, 2016

In which we discuss Rabbits, die Haschenschule, Suetterlin, Kurrent, Fraktur, and Su's Cousin Joe

Our corespondent Su, in Great Britain, is unrelated by blood but decidedly related by research, not to mention a mutual bizarre love of tangential information (sound familiar?) which actually makes her more related than YOU.  
Read on, this is delightful!

Dear Marlys,
I have a relative who does voluntary work in a Charity /Thrift shop where she  sorts the incoming book donations.  She has to judge what is worth putting on sale and make some sort of guess as to how it should be priced.  Occasionally she finds old, unusual or foreign books and she has to do a little research on Amazon and other book dealers to find out what sort of price the charity might be able to get for them.  Occasionally she gets stumped so she sends her problems to me.  The first time this happened it was a book printed in German Black Letter Gothic, or Fraktur and I’m reasonably capable at reading that because of my translations of cousin Joe’s Heimatskunde.
 
The most recent one is the best yet and to help me she sent me some photos of it that she’d taken on her phone.  It was a tiny children’s pictorial storybook (see right) in the German Language and what caused the problem was that the cover was printed not in Fraktur but Sütterlin!  Now who would have thought that my limited ability to read Sütterlin could have any use outside our particular obscure branch of family history?  I’ve only ever come across Sütterlin as a cursive script before and the font used on the front cover was a version designed to look like handwriting.

  “Die Häschenschule Ein lustiges Bilderbuch mit Bilden von Fritz Koch-Gotha und Versen von Albert Sixtus” was translated by Googletranslate as “The Rabbit School: A Funny Picture Book with pictures from Fritz Koch Gotha and verses from Albert Sixtus”. I was intrigued to find out more about it. This little book seems to be as deeply embedded in the German culture, social memory and affection as Beatrix Potter’s stories of Peter Rabbit are in England (and possibly the US? – I don’t know what is your equivalent – maybe The Cat in the Hat?).  It has been in print almost continuously since it was first published in 1924 and it became clear through visiting many German book-dealer sites that although there are hundreds of copies of various ages around, like Peter Rabbit, an early edition could be quite valuable, so it was important that I could date it reasonably accurately. I spent a lot of time on time on it and began to get a feel for what was important in determining its age.  It isn’t one of the very earliest editions because the cover background is pale, not dark, and that change was made in after the 6th edition but it must have been printed before 1947 when the stern teacher rabbit was deprived of his cane because he was thought to be too scary.  After that, narrowing down the date depended on what font was used for the body text and here things began to get really interesting.

The changes in the typeface used for the body text of this book, over the time it has been published reflect some very interesting cultural and social issues in Germany.  The early editions had the text printed in Fraktur, a gothic font beloved of German speaking peoples and others, but in the mid 1930s it was reprinted in Antiqua, which is a Roman or Latin font, like the one I’m typing in now, and from the 51st edition it was printed in Sütterlin but there is a great deal more behind this than you could possibly imagine.  The use of Gothic style scripts was once widespread across Europe but from the 18th century slowly gave way Latin style scripts, which were considered to be of the classical age.  In the early 19th century, when Germany was establishing itself as a nation and its cultural identity was of great significance, Fraktur was adopted as the official national typeface.  Despite this, there was much intellectual discussion about whether it was in fact the best sort of font to use.  Some thought that it would be better to use a Latin /Roman style of lettering called Antiqua, such as we use in the US and UK; others thought they should continue with Fraktur because it represented German virtues such as depth and sobriety (!).  The argument over the various virtues of the fonts descended into a vitriolic silliness that it is hard to believe and became known as the Antiqua – Fractur dispute .  Otto von Bismarck was so much against the use of Antiqua that he returned gifts of books printed in Antiqua with a note to say that he ‘didn’t read German books in Latin letters’! The great poet Goethe was attracted to the clarity and easy reading qualities of Antiqua but his mother was definitely not, and wrote to urge him to remain—"for God's sake"—German, even in his letters.

Until 1911 most German printed material was in Fraktur and German handwriting was in a cursive script called Kurrent but a further complexity arose when in that year the Prussian Ministry of Science, Art and Culture (Preußisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Kunst und Volksbildung) commissioned the graphic artist Ludwig Sütterlin, to create a modern, more easily readable handwriting script and an equivalent print font.  Thus Sütterlinschrift became the accepted style of handwriting in Prussia in 1915, that gradually spread across Germany until by 1935 it was the only style taught.  Despite later changes in policy it was still being taught in some places as late as the 1970s.

If you compare examples of Sütterlin you can see that Sütterlin is a more upright, print-like version of Kurrent that has been shorn of its smooth flowing qualities for the virtue of modern style and readability.  I suspect that although these changes have made Sütterlin a little easier to read it is probably much more difficult to write clearly at speed than Kurrent so, in general, people who were taught the new modern fashionable style had handwriting that was of poorer quality than those taught Kurrent.   I’m making this suggestion through personal experience because I was taught a version of English handwriting called Marion Richardson Writing.  Letters were very simple with no serifs, loops or ornaments of any kind; even the capital letter J did not have a horizontal line on it.  Each letter had to be perfectly vertical and there were very few ligatures between letters.  It meant that there was no natural flow to it and it was tiring to write as the pen had to be lifted off the page very frequently.  I was considered to have very good handwriting at Junior School but as my education progressed the need to write both quickly and clearly became more pressing and I hadn’t been taught the methods that enabled me to do it.  To my shame, as an adult, I don’t have the good clear handwriting I should have and every adult I have ever met who was taught that method has complained of the same problem.

To return to the great text saga.
At first the Nazis embraced Fractur fonts for their supposed Germanic qualities but they tied themselves in knots over whether or not the font was ‘Jewish’ and in 1941 black letter typefaces such as Fraktur were banned in favour of Antiqua.   Soon after, a second edict banned Sütterlin and Kurrent handwriting in favour of Normalschrift ("normal script").  The edicts were signed by Martin Bormann but were probably made at the personal behest of Hitler himself, who in 1934 declared that an age of ‘steel and iron, glass and concrete’ required something more modern.  It is also possible that in 1941, when the Nazis were still in the ascendant, they faced the problem of producing written material that could be read by people of the countries they had Occupied. Whatever an edict says, it is very difficult to erase a style of handwriting from the whole population so, although Sütterlin and Kurrent were no longer taught, they remained in use for many years afterwards and Sütterlin enjoyed a certain amount of revival after the fall of the Third Reich.
The various fonts in which The Rabbit School was printed reflect these changes of policy, it being printed in Fraktur up till the mid 1930s, then Antiqua and later still in Sütterlin but I don’t know when it finally returned to a Latin style font.  The edition I had to deal with was curious in that the outer cover (probably the damaged dust jacket that had been cut down and attached to the book with sticky-backed plastic at a much later date) was in Sütterlin but the body text was in Fraktur.  Dust jackets are easy and cheap to change so it may have been old stock given a quick makeover to make it more appealing and saleable.

When I do a piece of work like this I write a mini-report of my findings and keep a careful note of the websites I’ve used, the translations I’ve made and where I’ve sourced other information just in case the information is needed again.  Yes- very pedantic of me but this is about good research practice.  I worked on it nearly all day, stopped typing and closed the document and went off to cook the evening meal.  When I returned to it a little later –Oh no! - all that opened was the earliest page in which was pasted the screen shots of the photos and even Rob, with all is skills and tricks, couldn’t resurrect the version I’d been working on.  I am very careful about ‘frequent saving stops you raving’ and we also have an auto-save facility set up to operate at ten-minute intervals but somehow that had failed too but in the end this wasn’t quite the disaster it seemed at the time.

Overnight I mulled over the problems and in the back of my mind was a deep unease.  There was something odd that I couldn’t put my finger on and it concerned both the translation and the illustrations.  The pictures in Beatrix Potter’s books are very charming but they are not fictionalized animals:  Peter, despite his little blue jacket is a real rabbit.  Potter kept wild animals of all sorts as pets and she was a very skilled and accurate painter who worked from life.  What bothered me about the rabbits in the pictures in The Rabbit School was that they didn’t really look like rabbits to me. Wild rabbits are a bit chubby and fluffy and genuinely very appealing but the rabbits in this book are slim; their heads are bony, their paws are long and delicate and there is something wrong about the ears.

The next morning I sat down at the computer and tied to recreate the previous day’s work but first I looked very carefully at the pictures and the text and it suddenly hit me that the German word for rabbit is das Kaninchen but that word doesn’t occur in the title.  I wondered if the word used was German for ‘bunny ‘rather than ‘rabbit’ and suspicious of google translate I tried dear Herman instead.  And Herman spoke and he said that Die Häschenschule is not The Rabbit School but The Leverets School and a leveret is a young hare!

 Immediately I knew what it was that had disturbed me about the illustrations: they are very accurate paintings of hares, not rabbits.  In North America there are something like 15 species of rabbits and hares but in Britain and across most of Europe there are only three.  We have Rabbits, Mountain or Blue Hares and Brown Hares, but Mountain Hares mostly live only in the higher uplands and I don’t think I’ve ever seen one.  Most people who do not live in the countryside can’t tell them apart, but to me, hares and rabbits are as different a Thoroughbred English racehorse is from a tubby Shetland pony.  Fritz Koch Gotha meticulously recorded their exact features in his illustrations:  hares are slim, long legged, with very distinct black tips to their ears and black fur on the upper sides of their elegant, white, tails.  They also have golden brown irises to their eyes whereas rabbits’ eyes are just very dark – almost black.  Hares are far less common than rabbits and hold a special place in British folklore, being considered fey and magic and wise, and the Easter Bunny is really the Easter Hare.

Am I the only person to have noticed this mistake in translation?  I went back through the examples for sale on English–language sites and all except one called it The Rabbit School.   That odd one, which was advertised under its German title, described the cover illustration as having a ‘hare headmaster and leveret pupil’.  You can now be laugh hysterically at my expense, when I tell you that having thought I’d got it wrapped, I discovered that German translations of The Tale of Peter Rabbit is published as Die Geschichte von Peterchen Hase.   The –chen ending is a diminutive which can imply cuteness,  but the Hase is an adult hare!  There is the possibility that the publishers were jumping on the bandwagon of the undoubted popularity of Die Häschenschule but it is equally likely I’m missing some subtle cultural detail. ARGGHH Translation is truly a minefield!

Rabbits are not native to Britain but were introduced by the Norman French about 1000 years ago as a very special and luxurious form of food for the tables of the rich.  They were kept in specially built ‘warrens’ surrounded by a wall and looked after by a warrener who ran a pack of dogs for culling them.  At that time the adult was called a Cony or Coney, the young were called rabbits and the babies called kits.  The Norman French and the later Medieval Court and aristocracy was besotted with hunting, and cooking and eating their kill and they had an enormous and highly complicated vocabulary of words associated with these activities.  Even the process of dismembering the cooked carcass and serving the meat had a specific name dependent on the type of animal or bird.  I think the reason that the word rabbit has survived while coney has gradually dropped out of use is that the rabbit is the only one that’s worth eating.   Rob once shot a very large elderly rabbit (truly a coney) and we anticipated that it would feed us for several days, but after 8 hrs very slow and gentle cooking it was as tough as old boots and completely inedible.  Since then we’ve never bothered to attempt to eat the coneys; it’s the rabbits we want.

And yes, this is where Coney Island comes from (Rabbit Island). 
A hug and a THANK YOU to Su!!


Thursday, July 7, 2016

Bequeathed

Mr Research® has been especially industrious this week.  He found, online, the Last Will And Testaments of some of our key relatives.  They were written (copied) in long-hand into ledger books and kept in Morrison county, I assume.  (Part of the fun of doing genealogy with Larry is that I often don't know his sources till much later ☺) He emailed screen captures of Paul Hesch, our great grandfather, who died in 1900; his wife Mary Otremba Hesch, who died in 1917; and Paul's brother Anton Hesch, who died in 1911, in Agram township.   Yes, we have a rough copy of Paul's will here on HH, and some info about Anton's probate hearing, but these are the official records.  Funny, I always thought wills were kept in envelopes in lawyers' safes, and read dramatically to the potential heirs in an elegant library somewhere, like on Perry Mason...but no, I guess not.

Anyway, Larry said he found more family wills, so we'll see those soon.  In the meantime, here's the book copy of Paul's dictated original:
Paul Hesch's Will, dictated on his death bed
in August 1900.


 Great uncle Anton's Will (left) and probate, settled in January, 1912.









The Will and probate of Mary (Otremba) Hesch,
who died in 1917.

I don't understand the probate process, but wait, lets check the internet:
"Probate is the court-supervised process of gathering a deceased person's assets and distributing them to creditors and inheritors".
Ok, Anton's Will and Mary's Will were probated, but not Paul's?


The whole legal-death system was still being built in 1900, so that's probably it ☺
YAY, LARRY!

Saturday, July 2, 2016

Even more about John Peter Sand...

 We've devoted a lot of virtual ink here  to Grandma Lizzie's uncle John Peter Sand.  JP was Mike Sand's brother, a Civil War vet, deputy sheriff of Morrison Co, and husband of the woman who released prisoners from the Little Falls jail and ran away with one of em.

As Hesch relatives go, this couple was pretty sensational, being part of the only legal hanging ever in Morrison Co.
We found articles in the St Paul papers in 1888-89 about the trial, and then figured out if & how J P was related.  Here he is in the 1875 Minnesota census, and the 1880 Federal census.

J P's wife is listed as Helena or Helen, but in the 1885 Minnesota census, below, she's listed as Magdalena, so we assumed these were two different women.
Turns out John Peter Sand married Magdalena Ferschweiler in 1871 in Stearns Co--Larry found their marriage license today. Probably Lena just didn't particularly like the name Magdalena, so she called herself Helena--Lena for short.

In the first 9 years of their marriage, JP and Lena had 3 kids, Peter, Angelica and Kate, then in 1883, two daughters died of diphtheria (see yesterday's post)...Angelica and Kate/Ann.  Going by the ages listed on the census pages, their five kids were Peter b 1873, Angelica b 1877, Kate b 1878, Margaret b 1881, and Frank b 1885.    The 1890 census was lost in a fire in 1921, so we don't know more, except that a great grandson of Frank's contacted me a couple years ago.  He had no idea about any of this...

So, here's the marriage record for JP & Lena:

                                                       Pretty amazing, huh?                                              

Thursday, June 30, 2016

The 1883 Buckman Diphtheria Epidemic

Our good friend John was at the Morrison County Courthouse this week, looking at the record books stored there from the year 1883.  He was checking the cause of death of members of his family back then, when he realized that page 235 recorded TWELVE children in five families in Buckman who had died that year, of diphtheria. Doubtless, there were other kids who died of diphtheria in Buckman in those years, but two of the families John found were "ours":
  • Joseph, the 4 year old son of Robert and Veronica HANISCH died in July, 1883;
  • Anna (6) and Louisa (5), daughters of John And Amelia HODORFF died in November and December, 1883;
  • Frances (6 months), and August (5), children of John and Marie JANSON died in November, 1883;
  • Anna (5) and Angelica (6), daughters of JP and Magdalena SAND died in October that year;
  • Henry (5), Herman (6), Charles (12), Daniel (3) and Caroline (1)--children of Jacob and Caroline KOWITZ died between the 4th and 20th of October that year. 
Oh my, five kids in one family had to break the Kowitz' hearts, and spirits.  According to the 1885 census, 3 Kowitz children survived (Julius, Louisa and Mary), and happily, another child, Christina, was born in 1885.

According to an article in Minnesota History Magazine that Larry found, a family named Hanson lost five children in Sleepy Eye four years earlier: " It was a sad sight to see Hanson driving up the road every day or two on his way to the cemetery, alone with his dead. The children died between August 26 and September 5. There were no funeral services or processions for the little ones—just simple interments with little or no ceremony".  This would be true all over the state--and it's why there are no monuments in the cemetery with their names.

The John Jansons, above, had just arrived from Germany that spring.  They'd traveled with the Joseph Janson family, my great-grandparents. The baby who died, Frances, was born in Buckman, but little August had made it all the way across the ocean, only to die of a horrible disease over here.

JP Sand was great-grandpa Michael's brother.  We've written about him on HH because he became a Morrison Co sheriff's deputy.  We knew he was married to a woman named Helena according to the 1880 federal census, and they had 3 kids, but she must have died, perhaps in childbirth, because by 1885, JP was married to Magdalena (Ferschweiler).  I think Angelica was 6 months old, not 6 years.  Peter and Margaret survived, and by the 1885 census, little Frank had been born.

There are no family stories about the devastation of having children die so young.  I suspect it had something to do with the "scientific" attitude at the time: some authorities thought diphtheria was caused by unsanitary conditions. That article from the St Paul Globe newspaper, February 1881, uses words like filth and squalor, so besides loosing beloved babies and children, there would have been a pall cast on their home and its housekeeping. But then, as Larry added, maybe it was too horrible to remember, and simply couldn't be..

The first few Minnesota newspapers reporting diphtheria deaths were in 1879 or so.  By 1882, newspaper articles were definite about isolating and quarantining anyone with diphtheria.  Schools and churches were closed, and public funerals could not be held, meaning mourners couldn't come to the house of the victim, where they would traditionally have been laid out.  Early on, a paper would report local deaths, but later, it seemed only deaths in towns 50 miles away were mentioned.  I didn't find mention of any of the Buckman deaths, but the Library of Congress doesn't have every newspaper.
Next day: Larry found an article from the Fergus Falls Daily Journal, dated August 20, 1969 (Google has newspapers, too!) about a forgotten cemetery where a few diphtheria epidemic victims were buried in 1883. Such a sorrowful place...I hope it's been restored.
BTW, other stats I found in my research--Minnesota recorded 460 deaths from Diphtheria in 1879 alone, and Princeton closed all schools because there was one case in town. If only other towns had done the same.





Thank you to John L from Larry & me!

Monday, May 30, 2016

Were there passenger ships arriving in Duluth?


I've wondered about that ever since I found this blurb by Great Uncle Math in the Buckman News column of the July 25, 1913 Little Falls Herald:
 Did they actually see passenger ships, or did Mary have to extrapolate?  We know Frank was a train engineer by then, and was working out of Duluth, so he would have known one way or the other.  But WE need to research it, since you're all so worried about knowing the answer.  Not to worry, keep reading ☺

I've been checking the DULUTH HARBOR CAMS lately cuz it's fun to see big ships glide into the canal and give a one-long-and-two-short blast on the horn that says "I'm HERE!", and the answering one-long-and-two-short from the bridge that says "Welcome!".  Click the link, and open the Canal one.  You'll see the view from the Marine Museum roof, looking east, out to the lake.  Then, if you close that and open the Bridge cam, it's the opposite direction from the same roof, looking toward the harbor itself.  Got that?

I wondered how long the cement sidewalks on the breakwaters of the shipping canal have been there--as in, where they already there in 1913?  Yes!  The official date is 1871, but the sidewalks were certainly there in July 1913, and so was an aerial bridge:

The Duluth ship canal, sans bridge, in 1898.
  
 Something more than a ferry across the canal was needed, as Minnesota Point (now Park Point) was becoming more populated with businesses and homes.  Plus, people were buying cars.  Here it is in 1910, with the solution pictured right below, the way Frank and his mom would have seen it.  



This was a suspended ferry of sorts.  The platform could hold 120,000 pounds, including people, horses, wagons and street cars.  The trip across took about a minute, and was efficient at leaving room for boats to enter. HERE'S A BETTER PHOTO.  I really hope Frank and his mom took a ride, just for fun.

So, you say, what makes me think that there were any passenger ships during that time?  Well, if you've clicked links above, you know some of the photos are from a website called Shorpy.com | History in HD is a vintage photo blog featuring thousands of high-definition images from the 1850s to 1950s.
Another picture I found there was of the Lake Steamer North Land docked in Buffalo, NY, on it's way to Chicago and Duluth.  Hooray!

BTW, the Duluth ship canal lift bridge as we know it was re-fitted in 1929-1930 so the deck rises out of the way of passing ships, and lowers again for vehicular traffic.

Sunday, May 29, 2016

Paul Bunyan (Hesch), Crosby

LOOK at the cool articles Larry found today in the Brainerd Dispatch from March and May, 1950.  Yes, we've featured him before, in 2010, but not with these two episodes.
(This Paul Hesch was dad's cousin, the son of Joseph L Hesch and Anna Heurung.  He was one of two of Joe's kids who stayed in Minnesota. He was 2 years younger than dad).
I think we met him at some point when we were kids, but I wouldn't put money on it ☺

So Paul went to St Louis to promote tourism--in 1950!  Seems pretty forward-thinking for lil' ol' Brainerd, doesn't it?  Of course, they were promoting the whole lakes and resorts area, the cool nights and excellent fishing, not so much the towns.

 This second clip speaks for itself, we think.  Larry and I decided we liked him better with the beard...and sideburns ☺.

THANKS,
    LARRY!

Friday, May 27, 2016

Mom's short-lived collection

I often think about items from our culture that have quietly disappeared, almost without our being aware of them:  wall phones and pay phone banks, point & shoot cameras,  match books, wrist watches, pastures of Holsteins, cabooses, transistor radios, daily newspapers, packing a lunch or sewing clothes because it's economical, doing dishes in the sink, libraries...a thousand things that didn't always make life better, just familiar.

The process is genealogically useful, after all, as you can date a photo or movie by what's included or not.  I can usually tell what year a Buckman family photo was taken if it was before 1950 or so, but even 1980 or 1990 pics look dated these days ☺

In 1939, Orlinda Janson (my mom ☺) and some friends took a train trip to The Golden Gate International Exposition in San Francisco.
It was an organized tour group, and cost each of them $200.
Mom always said it was held on "Mare Island", but it wasn't.  I suppose tours of Mare Island Naval Shipyard and LA's Santa Catalina Island were included, tho, and they got all vanvickled (verwickelt) in her head.  Anyway, we loved the stories, and she visited with those friends for years.







So, what's a matchbook?  Back then, practically everybody smoked cigarettes, anywhere, anytime.  In restaurants, hospitals, grocery stores, trains and buses, anywhere people were...and a book of 20 matches was handed to you with the pack of cigs at the store. Certainly free matches were available at tourist attractions. Most had advertising on the outside.

 Looks like Mom tired of matchbook collecting after only 15 books ☺






















Saturday, May 14, 2016

Granite in the river

In one of our periodic posts of incredibly fascinating but un-Hesch-related articles from old newspapers, we posted this clip from the St Cloud Journal.  It was September 1896 and a block of granite had fallen THRU the St Germain Street bridge.  The idea interested me, and made me laugh--can you imagine?



Back then, how exactly do you retrieve a ten ton block from the muddy bottom of the Mississippi?  And, WHO pays for it?  It was about to be shipped, so some other project was held up, too.  Certainly, somebody needed to be sued, right?

(I know, I know--they were able to winch an even larger  chunk of stone out of the quarries in the first place, but that was with machines anchored to the sides of the pit.  This was down a steep wooded river bank and sunk in mud.  I would have liked to watch, and I expect loads of people did ☺)

The bridge in question, but are we looking east or west?  I think
"10 feet from the waters' edge" would have been fairly deep, either way.


On the day of the incident, the report mentions how planks gave way, and the stone made a 12 foot hole in the deck as it fell "thru the steel work to the river below".  Street car and wagon traffic would necessarily be held up for awhile, and the cost might be as high as $500.
Really, nobodies fault....but by 3 weeks later, the block itself had been damaged, not to mention the wagon it was on.  No wonder the city council rejected the demand.
I tried to follow up this afternoon to see if there actually was a law suit, but Chronicling America is down for maintenance.

I'll let you know ☺.

Sunday, May 1, 2016

More from the Pierz Journal




From the Pierz Journal (but not by Great Uncle Math, I think), comes this bit of teasing about the advisability and method of cutting a tree down.  I like that the writer admires Mr Dombovy for it, too, in a backhanded way.


 Being a florist for 38 years myself, I've looked for florist ads in the PJ or the Little Falls papers, but this is the only one I've found.  Drives me nuts that they don't say WHERE the flowers were coming from (Little Falls? St Cloud? Brainerd?).  There was no flower shop in Pierz in 1916.
We know flowers were a part of funerals then, but that wedding flowers were usually only fresh if they were in season in the garden; otherwise, they were millinery flowers and saved for future hats.



HOW did we stretch such limited supplies of gasoline out like this?
We were supposed to run out in 2014 according to the article, and that was using it at that "rate of consumption".  Wow, huh?

Friday, April 29, 2016

We won! We WON!!

 With much commentular encouragement about not going to hell if I brag about the Diorama, here it is ☺.  We won first prize ($75, a 2 year MCHS membership  and a wonderful book by Anton Treuer--because I already have the book about Nathan Richardson).  Woopee!  Just so you know, NO ONE mentioned the buffalo's equipment at ALL.  The prize money was split between us and I'll send Larry the book when I'm finished reading it.  I only wish there'd been lots more entries, but it was a hoot either way ☺!



YAY, US!! ☺